Review Article

Understanding the molecular pathogenesis and prognostics of bladder cancer: an overview

Ming Zhao, Xiang-Lei He, Xiao-Dong Teng


The knowledge of cellular mechanisms in malignances of the bladder has grown exponentially.
Molecular technologies have led to the discovery of the molecular pathways distinguishing low-and highgrade
urothelial neoplasms. This trend portends the future in which the classification and diagnosis of the
bladder tumors through morphologic analysis will be supported by molecular information correlating with
prognosis and targeted therapy. This article outlines tumor molecular pathology of bladder cancer with an
emphasis on several promising candidate biomarkers that may soon make their transition to the realm of
clinical management of bladder cancer.